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Boron-B: atom structure.


Wave theory-United nature theory

Based: of nature and laboratory observations.



Tejman Chaim Henry Dr.

United nature theory-Wave theory

Name: Boron
Symbol: B
Atomic Number: 5
Atomic Mass: 10.811 amu
Melting Point: 2300.0 °C (2573.15 K, 4172.0 °F)
Boiling Point: 2550.0 °C (2823.15 K, 4622.0 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 5
Number of Neutrons: 6
Classification: Metalloid
Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral
Density @ 293 K: 2.34 g/cm3
Color: brownish

Atomic Structure

[Bohr Model of Boron]

Number of Energy Levels: 2

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 3



Half Life





Date of Discovery: 1808
Discoverer: Sir Humphry Davy, J.L Gay-Lussac
Name Origin: From borax and carbon
Uses: heat resistant alloys
Obtained From: kernite

Taken from:

·                     Series: Metalloids (Nonmetal)

Atomic Structure of Boron

·                     Atomic Radius: 1.17Å

·                     Atomic Volume: 4.6cm3/mol

·                     Covalent Radius: 0.82Å

·                     Cross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture)sigmaa/barns: 767

·                     Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral

·                     Electron Configuration:

1s2 2s2p1

·                     Electrons per Energy Level: 2,3


Shell Model
graphic of Boron's shell model

·                     Ionic Radius: 0.23Å

·                     Filling Orbital: 2p1

·                     Number of Electrons (with no charge): 5

·                     Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 6

·                     Number of Protons: 5

·                     Oxidation States: 3

·                     Valence Electrons: 2s2p1


Electron Dot Model

Chemical Properties of Boron

·                     Electrochemical Equivalent: 0.1344g/amp-hr

·                     Electron Work Function: 4.45eV

·                     Electronegativity: 2.04 (Pauling); 2.01 (Allrod Rochow)

·                     Heat of Fusion: 50.2kJ/mol

·                     Incompatibilities:

·                     Ionization Potential

o                  First: 8.298

o                  Second: 25.154

o                  Third: 37.93

·                     Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 190


Physical Properties of Boron

·                     Atomic Mass Average: 10.811

·                     Boiling Point: 4275K 4002°C 7236°F

·                     Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 5E-6

·                     Conductivity

Electrical: 1.0E-12 106/cm ohm
Thermal: 0.274 W/cmK

·                     Density: 2.34g/cc @ 300K

·                     Description:

Yellow-brown non-metallic crystal.

·                     Elastic Modulus:

o                  Bulk: 320/GPa

·                     Enthalpy of Atomization: 573.2 kJ/mole @ 25°C

·                     Enthalpy of Fusion: 22.18 kJ/mole

·                     Enthalpy of Vaporization: 480 kJ/mole

·                     Flammablity Class:

·                     Freezing Point: see melting point

·                     Hardness Scale

o                  Mohs: 9.3

o                  Vickers: 49000 MN m-2

·                     Heat of Vaporization: 489.7kJ/mol

·                     Melting Point: 2573K 2300°C 4172°F

·                     Molar Volume: 4.68 cm3/mole

·                     Pysical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid

·                     Specific Heat: 1.02J/gK

Notes below

Taken from:

The structure of like

H. Atom

I describe  on

Basis M-51 galaxy.

Small and large      formations must have

The same behavior.

{A. Einstein}

This galaxy clearly

show two different swirls connected by two energetic path and is completely independent wave

{Quantum} formation.




The structure of like H. Atom

Helium atom


Lithium atom structure.



Beryllium atom structure

See H, He, Li atoms {Tejman}.




Beryllium atom structure



Boron atom structure


Boron atom structure

Bo Atomic Mass: 10.811 amu



Half Life










Pictures from sky “laboratory” can help understand energetic matter behavior.


That is not just like that Boron atom formations, but we must understand the energetic matter behavior

I give her only foggiest (idea) of Boron and atoms behavior but that is only beginning of the road for atomic research.

For understanding the energetic matter behavior we need a lot of common sense, because every atom is independent

un-closed quantum formation.

The spontaneous and the wildest behavior of energetic matter {Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Schrödinger’s Superposition} can’t create identical matrix, only similar formations. and that give to like atoms their specific hue, like specific hue to every man, but like atoms have the same  vibration and wave formation,


See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download 
 the highest resolution version available.


Infrared Trifid
Credit: J. Rho (SSC/Caltech),

JPL-Caltech, NASA

The Cat's Eye Nebula (Revisited)
Credit: J.P. Harrington and

K.J. Borkowski (U. Maryland), HST, NASA


See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download 
 the highest resolution version available.
M57: The Ring Nebula
Credit: The Electronic Universe

Project, Nelson Caldwell

See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download 
 the highest resolution version available.
NGC 4361: Galaxy Shaped

Planetary Nebula
Credit: Bill Keel, U. Alabama



From space laboratory we can learn energetic matter behavior.



Every atom is independent unclosed gravitational wave {quantum} formation and similar atoms have the same vibration.


© Copyright:  Dr. Tejman Chaim, Henry , August 2007


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