Chapter 2 - Wave Theory and Photons

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In 1669, a Dutch physician, Erasmus Bartholinus (1625-1698), discovered that a crystal of Iceland spar, a transparent form of calcium carbonate, produces a double image (picture, right). Apparently, light passing through the crystal splits into two rays. This simple observation indicates that light has two components and is part of the basis of wave theory. Together with other observations, it stressed that light can appear in two forms.

In 1808, a French army engineer, Étienne Louis Malus (1775 -1812), discovered polarized light.

Some optically active systems rotate the plane of polarized light in a clockwise direction. This is taken as a right-handed turn; such systems are dextrorotatory. Others turn light in a counter-clockwise direction and are levorotatory. In later observations, it was seen that some plastic devices polarize light waves in a transverse position, while others polarize light waves perpendicular to one to other. In whole light, those two forms always appear together and it is easy to split them into two rays (picture below).

Thus we see that one part of a photon moves in a perpendicular plane and the second seems to be in a transverse position (picture, right). The structure of the photon resembles astronomical observations, whereby a transverse cloud of energetic matter connects vertical discs.

In the picture above, we see that the loop in the perpendicular position is well defined and shining. The loop in the transverse position is composed of active energetic matter; wider than the first loop, it is cloud-like, not clearly visible and with no clear borders. As the loops are in perpendicular and transverse positions and belong to the same star couple formation, perhaps, the photon also has the same structure (picture below).

Research indicates that a photon’s light has two properties, one magnetic and one energetic-electric (picture below).

We may assume that the two loops comprise a complex structure, forming the formation we call a wave, which is similar to the two star loop from the cosmos observation (picture below), in which perpendicular loops alternate with transverse loops. This is similar to a computer’s well-known 0 1 (0 +) pattern; perhaps wave formations have 0 + behaviour.

As in observations of the cosmos, these two loops in the photon seem to be connected by energetic matter, because magnetic and electric properties alternate regularly in pairs. From the cosmos photograph, we see that the discs are strongly connected; they always appear in the same position and move together, one after the other.

The matter fuelling both discs in the cosmos photograph seems to be identical. In perpendicular discs, the cloud matter looks to be uniform (chapter 1, picture 1), but more concentrated in the centre. The transverse cloud is not clearly visible or well organized and is without well-defined borders. Its rotation is unclear. Its highly active, amorphous high-energy matter creates and maintains a tight connection to the perpendicular loops.

We conclude that the same energetic matter circulates in both loops, keeping them strongly linked and covered by very fine cloud remnants of the cloud from which they were ejected. Since photon streams always show alternating energetic and magnetic properties, perhaps, the structure of photons and huge formations, such as stars, are alike (pictures below). It seems that the change of position, concentration and direction of currents of energetic matter in loops changes its properties and behaviours. As the outlying areas of stars overlap, we can assume that their active energetic matter flows from one swirl to another, and that this matter creates a two swirl formation by the continuous propagation of energetic matter, binding the two loops into a wave formation.

In 1862, James Clerk Maxwell used a mathematical equation to describe how energy could be propagated through space in the form of vibrating electric and magnetic fields (picture below). It seems that the propagation of photons and energetic signals (changes of energetic activity) occurs mainly by the vibration of energetic matter.

The famous experiments of Joseph Henry and Michael Faraday in 1881 showed that a magnet moving in a coil creates energetic movement (picture below) . The change in the flow of energetic matter from the perpendicular to the transverse space causes the “metamorphosis” of the behaviour of matter into other behaviours.

Energetic matter must be transmitted between the two bodies along well-organized invisible paths (picture below), because the alternate behaviours and formations are always repeated.

As we have said above, one loop has energetic properties and the second probably has magnetic properties. We may assume that basic electro-magnetic matter is probably only a swirl of energetic matter that by its movement creates, in one formation, two sibling loops, containing different properties. Perhaps, electro-magnetic matter (waves) composes everything. Galaxies create stars, stars create atoms and atoms create molecules that create all the structures we know. Energetic matter creates everything.

Einstein’s equation E=mc2 is well known. The equation can also be stated as M=e/c2, indicating that there is no difference between matter and energy.

We conclude that basic energetic matter (swirls, waves) is governed by the same laws throughout the universe and creates everything in it. The creativity of nature is unbelievable: this identical energetic matter, by changing its configuration, direction and the concentration of energy in the energetic, swirling, vibrating paths it creates, changes its properties and behaviours (picture below).

We thus see that the space of a high-energy photon is enlarged, changing its behaviour.

In photographs of the sun, we see that it expels half rings of energetic matter moving in a single direction with a swirling motion. Within these open rings, there is energetic matter that also moves with the same motion in the same direction (picture below).

Energy moving in different paths in spiral motions creates endless energetic properties (forces) (picture below).

As depicted in the next picture, the two loops found in a wave have different properties. This gives rise to different forces (currents) within the wave, acting in all directions. These forces enable the wave to come in contact with other waves and defend its space and existence (Pauli exclusion principle).

The pictures to follow depicts the behaviour of energy in magnetic and energetic loops.

The proceeding illustration shows the properties of low-energy small waves and high-energy waves.

Every wave has its energetic level (capacity), space and time. Waves are held in position by their two-loop structure; the circulation of energetic matter in different directions acts like propellers in all directions. A wave’s position also depends on its relationship with other wave constellations (Einstein’s idea of the net universe). Relationships with same-phase formations are stronger.

Loops in photons do not fall on each other. When separated, they easily reunite with their partners or similar loops. Both loops have the same energy level and the same momentum of flow of electro-magnetic matter in paths (rings) and in the entire wave that are suitable for the rotation and connection of rings.

I use the photon to explain wave theory because we know that it is a single wave-particle, which is composed of energetic (electro-magnetic) matter that escaped or was expelled from greater objects as an independent single-wave quantum of energy (picture below).

The next picture offers a visual comparison between wave theory and electro-magnetic rules.

In Chapter 1, picture 1, we saw that expelled stars appear in pairs. Photons, by association, may have the same formation. Assuming that one loop of a photon is magnetic and the second energetic, and as we know is the case with electro-magnetic field positions in electricity (first picture on this page), we may posit that photons and stars are waves composed of two related loops. The magnetic loop is in a perpendicular position, and the energetic in a transverse position; they appear as a wave in every formation. This is hinted at in our observations of planets, where the planets rotate in the transverse position, while their magnetic fields are in the perpendicular position (picture below)

We cannot always recognize this structure clearly because these relationships appear in different forms (see the chapter on atoms).

The same picture shows that stars move with a well-defined perpendicular disc in face position, followed by a transversal cloud. Perhaps in young (high-energy) photons, like stars, the magnetic loop moves in face position preceding the energetic loop; in old waves, the former surrounds the latter (picture below).

From rainbows and spectra, we know that the photon has three colours (wave lengths). As the photon has two loops, this means it has six colour paths (wave lengths, rings). Thus, we have three colours in one loop and three twin colours, different from the first three because of the loop’s position. The six rings together form an energetic wave. Energy flowing in rings may seem to be a simple formation; in reality it is very complicated. The simplest things are often also the most complex (see picture to the right).

The existence of infrared and ultra-violet light that fades outside waves, indicates that these rings have no clear-cut borders and no definite space, and that energetic matter extends beyond its own path and wave (picture below).

The picture to the bottom-left shows a photon as it appears to us. The picture below and to the right illustrates the photon’s invisible, borderless energetic matter.

Transverse loops in stars (chapter 1, picture.1) seem to be more active because their structure and borders are unclear, fading out like a cloud. This implies that they disperse into their surroundings, which may be composed of matter that comes in contact with this energetic wave matter (picture, above right).

The perpendicular loop is clearly visible and has sharp borders. As opposed to the energetic loop, it holds energetic matter tightly and does not allow it to escape.

Despite the different positions of the photon’s two loops (and six paths-rings), they form one wave and are interconnected. Although the structure of the loops is unchangeable, the connection between them is very loose; by adding energy, we can separate them, as seen in the two following pictures:

When a loop that has been separated unites with a suitable loop, the excess energy expelled appears as a photon (energy) (picture to the right). We may then conclude that the primary stable formation of energetic matter appears as a two-loop wave formation, which changes behaviour and formation in different phases.

Energetic matter appears in status nascenti as vibrating, swirling, rotating, and active strings (rings, loops, waves) that create swirls. These photon-like formations are the primary formation of energetic matter.

Thomas Young's experiments were very important for understanding wave structure. Light passed through two slits produced crests and troughs (patterns of light and dark) that showed up on a screen as a so-called interference pattern (picture below).

Research indicates that even a single photon produces interference with itself by seemingly overlapping its two loops and producing light and dark spaces (rings) (picture below).

In astronomical photographs, galaxies have the same form. The dark rings may act as a sort of glue for the shining rings, maintaining the wave as one rigid, rotating object. Perhaps the dark space has simultaneously attracting and repelling properties, keeping the shining rings apart, so they do not fall on one another, as well as keeping them tightly together.

Shining rings may have specific properties, while dark rings may have others. Together, they create a wave of energetic matter that maintains a stable structure, preserving proportional equilibrium. In the interference experiment, when the two loops of a photon form one loop, they combine their energy levels and are in another phase. Galactic waves are on another energy level in which, perhaps, their two loops are united.

Passing high energetic matter (photons, light) through two slits causes a disturbance of the photon’s structure and the overlapping of high-energy matter (photons, loops) (picture above). On the screen, we obtain a picture of the natural behaviour of energetic matter in status nascenti. It appears in the form of a swirl (wave) that has two properties (of this identical matter). It behaves by forming crests (shining parts) and troughs (invisible parts), like galaxies. Shining rings in the peripheries of galaxies transform into “invisible” matter and seem to disappear - which would violate the law of the preservation of energy if they actually did. We know that the proportion of dark spaces (rings) and shining rings is stable for every formation. We assume that energetic matter appears predominantly in dark rings and magnetic matter in light rings. Shining rings in the periphery of galaxies are transformed into matter invisible to us; perhaps it is transformed into energetic matter. Young’s experiment indicates that a galaxy and a photon have the same basic properties and behaviours. The heart of the galaxy is a swirl, where energetic and magnetic matter appear in the same wave-galaxy formation. This is the only kind of matter where a change in the direction of movement changes behaviour and properties. Changing the position of a photon’s loops changes the behaviour of energetic matter in the same wave.

The following picture shows a young and an older galaxy.

The next illustration presents energetic and magnetic rings that fade into dark matter rings.

The picture below compares a young and old galaxy. Note that the old galaxy has a lot of dark spaces.

The overlapping rings in Young’s experiment form more clearly visible enlarged rings in new formations on another energy level. This seems to indicate that if light rings overlap and enlarge each other, then dark rings also overlap and enlarge each other, and that dark rings (spaces) are not empty space. Using interference, we see that the proportions of dark and light spaces vary from object to object, indicating different proportions of energetic matter between energetic and magnetic rings. Every object has its characteristic proportions and, therefore, different energy levels. The proportions of energetic to magnetic matter in an object’s wave of the same temperature (phase) are stable. By changing temperature or phase, the proportion between energetic and magnetic matter in the loops changes. A small change causes the wave to behave differently; a larger alters the wave’s nature.

Like photons, hydrogen atoms border between being waves or particles. For a better understanding of the behaviour of energetic matter, let us look at how photons are connected in a light stream (picture below). Energetic matter currents flow from a photon to its neighbour, with the assistance of energetic and magnetic loops. Magnetic loops alternate with energetic loops. Energy does not pass directly from one energetic loop to another, in a continuous flow, but passes from an energetic ring to a magnetic ring perpendicular to it. In a light stream, energetic streams have relatively different directions of flow as do magnetic loops.

An energetic path has no clear borders, which helps to transfer signals to neighbouring energetic streams (loops) (picture above) and results in a light stream with a uniform energetic level, information (genes) and time. These are all energetic matter properties and behaviours and are beyond our understanding. A change in the properties of the source of the light stream will result in a change in the energetic level, information (genes) and time of the light stream (picture below).

Every high-energy formation has its corona: visible, energetic space consisting of photons. The object not only emits energetic matter via photons, but also receives energetic signals, both from its surroundings and from the photons in its energetic paths (picture below).

The following pictures show the invisible, energetic matter around a photon.

Photons are very sensitive to every change in their own or their neighbours’ energetic matter. Like photon light streams, waves have internal streams and signal interchange; internal streams of energetic matter move in different directions and velocities and seem to exceed the velocity of light (wave particle).

Photons do not exceed light velocity; every experiment that has tried to make them do so has failed. It appears that something, perhaps dark matter, does not allow light to exceed its maximum velocity (below, left); it must transform into another medium, as in the borders of galaxies (below, right).

The three “colour” paths are connected by invisible energetic loops (picture below).

It may be that these invisible loops connecting the energetic colour paths are dark matter (picture below).

In Young’s experiment, we have two kinds of loops overlaying one another, so that on the screen we obtain light and dark rings, as well as loops of visible magnetic matter and of energetic matter. Using very precise instrumentation, we may be able to prove this. The following picture shows that every formation has two loops.

Podolsky, Rozin and Einstein’s experiment demonstrates that the velocity of signals (energy) in a light stream exceeds the velocity of light.

From the structure of a light stream (wave theory), we see that the direction of light depends on its source, on the bodies it encounters that redirect its stream, and on the energetic loops in a transverse position to the direction of its stream. Magnetic loops, perpendicular to the direction of the stream, separate energetic loops and transfer energetic matter between them. They also maintain the wave’s structure and its connections to other waves. Magnetic loops have energetic matter, like a corona of energy surrounding them and in confluence with neighbouring loops, which transfer signals instantly from photon to photon. Magnetic matter does not transfer the energetic matter it contains. Perhaps magnetic (dark?) matter comes into contact with other matter by energetic signals resembling vibrations. Magnetic matter is connected as one space; thus, signals pass through it instantly in all directions, faster than the velocity of light.

The fact that photons cannot exceed light velocity indicates that some kind of energetic matter in space does not allow the two loops to exceed their own velocity (picture, below). This invisible matter surrounds us. We may theorize that it maintains all energetic creations in the universe as one entity, with their respective phases.

Although photons are united in what we see as a continuous light stream, they are individual wave particles, maintaining themselves by internal paths. With neighbouring photons, every loop creates an a (alpha)-like structure (picture, below), lending each photon a more stable formation. The binding of photons between light streams occurs between magnetic loops. Energetic streams move in opposite directions, which does not strengthen the connection. This is the reason that light streams scatter easily and change the direction of light to the opposite direction (180°). Within each stream, however, the connections are between energetic loops, creating a strong “energetic rope”, which preserves the integrity and direction of individual streams.

We can conclude that interference disturbs a photon’s connections and structure; one loop overlaps and enlarges another. Crests are caused by shining magnetic matter that overlaps; troughs are formed by overlapping dark matter that does not shine. This structure resembles a picture of a cosmic wave; as we create this structure through experiments, we may infer that a galactic wave is in another phase.

Interference experiments also lead us to conclude that dark spaces are filled with energetic and magnetic matter because overlapping rings enlarge these spaces. Empty spaces cannot overlap, enlarge themselves or push away shining rings without being filled with something else. Together, rings of invisible matter and shining rings create electro-magnetic waves. Perpendicular loops create troughs; transverse loops create crests.

I would now like to return to the photon’s structure. All research, including astronomy, indicates that a photon’s two loops are not exactly symmetrical, and that their energy currents are not in the same form (picture below). The energetic loop is more extraverse and has a tendency to expand. The magnetic loop is smaller, more intraverse, and has a tendency to hold energetic matter.

In astronomical observations, we see different wave structures, indicating that the waves are in different stages of existence, but in the same phase. Some waves contain two big energetic swirls; in other photographs, two swirls, connected by energetic paths, form a wave. These are two different formations of the same energetic matter that are connected by the same energetic matter as well (picture to the right). This means that galaxies have two different loops connected by energetic paths and, we may imagine, resemble a photon formation of two loops in one wave. A big wave in space looks like the photons with overlapping loops in Young’s interference experiment and contain the highest energy concentration in the centre of the galaxy.

In other types of galaxies, swirls resemble photons with discrete loops. Here we have four formations, two swirls and two paths in one high-energy wave (picture, right). If we say that each of the two loops of a photon are like half a galaxy wave, this implies that one loop has the behavioural properties of one swirl and the second loop has the properties of the second (picture below).

We may assume that in these galaxies, one swirl is energetic and the second magnetic. Each loop is half of the big wave’s formation and consists of one swirl and two paths; the paths, however, are shared between the loops (picture below).

This inspires us to look at the atom’s two loops, which include one proton (energetic) loop and one neutron (magnetic) loop. When an atom is split, each half has three main elements: one loop and half of each of the two paths. These three elements may be quarks (picture below). The energetic movement of the elements of one half is opposed to that of the other. These may be anti-quarks.

Since the atom is in a low energy phase, its two loops are very close to one another (perpendicular).

Every galaxy has two visible paths or arms, with energetic movements in opposition to each other. One arm serves as an entrance to the swirl and the other as an exit. The circulation and direction of energetic matter in the paths-arms are also opposed to each other.

In the following illustration, we see that the ends of galactic waves are cut off and “hide” in their surroundings.

As matter (energy) cannot hide, but transfers to another form, so the shining matter must transfer to a form invisible to us. Both forms are created from the same matter; shining matter, however, has a visible formation and dark matter has a formation invisible to us. Shining matter and dark matter maintain stable proportions in every phase of the wave. Energetic matter does not disappear into nothingness (according to the rules of energetic matter conservation). The universe is filled with dark matter. Matter can only be energetic matter. Because energetic matter creates only two loops, dark (invisible) matter is probably the same energetic matter in a high phase, with energetic formations suitable to each phase. The dark matter merging with the arms of galaxies connects the galaxies to each other. Therefore, dark matter must have an important function, together with all other energetic formations.

Galaxies are energetic formations; they are clearly visible, with well-defined shining rings. As their two spiral arms disappear into dark matter, they must be connected in some way to dark space and its structure.

Since the distances between galaxies are stable, if the space between them consists of dark matter only, we may assume that it is very rigid and keeps them in their energetic paths, like galactic ring formations. Intergalactic dark matter may be an energetic formation invisible to us, which, by high energy levels, creates huge rings (swirls) that connect galaxies. Because this dark matter has a rigid formation, it should transfer information (signals, energetic changes) almost instantly, like vibrations. These properties may make dark matter formations an appropriate issue in Einstein’s wormhole proposition.

Although loops are rigid formations, photons and atoms are elastic. Energetic paths between loops can be stretched or minimized by adding or withdrawing energy. By adding energy to a photon, we enlarge the distance between loops, stretch energetic paths and change the position of the loops in respect to each other. The vertical (magnetic) loop gradually moves into a transversal position because it is more energetic.

A photon (wave) is active energetic matter. Its propagation is active; only the direction of light is passive and depends on its surroundings. An individual photon always moves with its magnetic loop in a perpendicular position. Because the connection between energetic loops of a light stream is so strong, when light is incident upon a surface, it does not disperse, but reflects from the surface into a path with the same angle.

Because magnetic loops always face a photon’s propagation, the Michelson-Morley experiment always shows the constant speed of light. The limit of wave-particle propagation is a maximum of 320,000 km/sec. It may be that because dark matter is a high-energy formation, it does not permit wave particles to exceed the velocity of light.

It seems that for higher speeds, energetic matter must undergo a phase transition. Dark matter in a higher phase has other behaviours. The speed of light is limited to wave-particle phase formations (photons). For this reason, a photon cannot transform to a higher phase and velocity. Because a photon has only one phase, it will appear and decay in the same life cycle.

The photon is shifted to red by loss of energy. A photon is the smallest organized “piece” of energetic matter (wave-particle) that can exist independently of a formation and also conjugate, as in a light stream. A photon contains the maximum amount of energy in proportion to its loops, size and phase, giving it the possibility of escaping from a large formation.

Every energetic formation’s existence decays by loss of energy. This happens in different ways. The expulsion of photons is one form of energy loss. This implies that the photon is the basic form of energetic matter that is expelled from an object; however, this may not be the last step of the wonderful creation of energetic matter.

From astronomy we see that galaxies decay, as if by annihilation, into dark matter. This means that energetic dark matter is an important formation, which maintain the form of the universe. Perhaps wave theory can help us understand the behaviour of dark matter (see the chapter on the universe).

Because objects decay into a photon formation, this means that the photon is composed of basic, pure, essential energetic matter. The photon may be the primary raw energetic matter formation. It is the smallest organized (by rings, loops and waves) creation of energetic matter. This will be discussed in later chapters. Photons are also the smallest wave-particles of energetic matter. Because it is the basic form of energetic matter, it can have different sizes and different proportions of energy between loops and rings.

A photon as a wave-particle is a mobile and independent formation, transferring energy in the universe from place to place, thus maintaining the energetic balance of the universe. Individual photons are shaped like a boomerang (picture below). In ideal circumstances, a photon can return to the same place because of its structure. Practically, this does not happen because its path is always disturbed and it can be absorbed by greater formations.

The photon is in perpetual movement, meaning that the natural behaviour of energetic matter is continuous activity. Energetic matter’s swirling circulation prompts the loops’ movement; the photon’s activity is caused by its energetic swirl. Energetic matter is active, creative living matter. The energetic matter in loops rotates together with the swirls. The speed of photons and waves is not passive; their energetic behaviour depends on the space, time and energetic activity around them.

A wave, like all objects in the universe, has a beginning, duration and decay. This is the law of energetic matter. From the moment of its creation, an ordinary wave cannot grow; it is a closed formation of two loops and energetic paths. By adding energy to a photon, we can only briefly extend the distances between its two loops and enlarge and stretch its energetic paths. A photon’s constellation cannot add energy, as it expels excess energetic matter as soon as possible. In time, a wave loses energy, weakening its paths’ connections and causing it to become enlarged.

As a consequence of lost energetic matter, photons turn to red and begin to decay. We must bear this in mind when calculating the Hubble constant. From black body radiation (energy-photons) experiments, we know that every object loses energy with time. From time to time, black objects radiate photons (energy). Radiation is a form of energy loss. Even at close to absolute zero, a wave loses energy because of its continuous activity. It is an extraordinary paradox of creation that energetic matter takes on a wave formation to maintain its integrity, while its natural behaviour is to expand and be independent, resulting in lost integrity.

Because energetic matter (wave) has no clear borders or a clean separation between rings, its electro-magnetic matter can simultaneously be in the paths of other rings, creating a network of energetic paths in a wave (picture below).

We know that a photon has two loops and thus, two sets of three colours (three colours and three anti-colours). The photon’s two loops, while existing in the same wave formation, have opposing properties. This is an ingenious creation.

Despite its independence-seeking behaviour, energetic matter (wave) comes in contact with other objects. The best correlations appear to be with the same phase or conjunctional levels of energy, with their for and against forces. For example, even at a distance, a vibrating molecule excites vibrations in molecules of the same energy level.

Photons have the classic basic structure of energetic matter, giving us a clue of the structure of objects in different phases. In different phase levels, wave formations slightly change structure.

In the mid-80’s, Yuri Prokoshkin and a group of Russian colleagues claimed to have found a new particle that decayed into four photons; that is, two loops of basic waves of energetic matter. This was an important experiment, as it demonstrated that the basic structure of every object is an energetic, wave-like photon structure. In this experiment, Prokoshkin obtained the basic structure of matter. All energetic objects decay to the smallest levels of energy (photons, waves), continuing until they disappear as independent photons and are absorbed into a new life cycle. Two photons, such as helium bonds, are the first stable particle -- the smallest first particle creation of two energetic and two magnetic loops. The creation of four loops from two wave particles creates a stable a (alpha) formation.

The behaviour of electro-magnetic matter changes in different phases according to the laws of nature, which are the same for all forms of energetic matter. A photon is the smallest formation of organized electro-magnetic matter, but is still not the most basic formation. This will be considered in the following chapters about energetic matter.

Photon Mass
A photon is composed of two main loops (fields), one transversal and one perpendicular, which together create a wave particle. The two fields are composed of rings (colours) and streams of energetic matter that form energetic paths.

After the Big Bang, energetic matter, with its unidirectional, inflation (pushing) and swirling propagation, created many different swirls in its expanded paths. It pushed into space and simultaneously thrust itself into the centre of the swirls. The pulling properties of the swirls were created incidentally by this pushing activity, and act along swirl paths. This is an incredible creation, which will be thoroughly discussed in the chapter on the universe.

Thus, we have a single energetic matter with one behaviour (inflation by swirling movement) creating two opposite forces, pushing and pulling, in endless competition.

Now we understand why every quantum of energy creates waves (pictures below). This will be discussed further in the chapter on quarks.

A high-energy object has more pushing, inflation, and anti-gravitational properties. A photon has more pushing energy in proportion to its magnetic (pulling) loop, beyond gravity. This is why we cannot measure its mass (energetic capacity) with standard methods. Nevertheless, a photon has its mass, time and space, as does every energetic creation (picture below).

A known paradox in research is that when a stream of light meets other streams coming from different points (picture below), they all have the same velocity and properties. The following pictures illustrate how light streams meet. We see that the streams of magnetic rings rotating in vertical positions flow in the same direction as its neighbouring streams. The magnetic rings are pulled toward the others. The energetic rings, located in a transversal position between the magnetic rings and their streams, flow in one direction in their transversal paths. These streams flow in an opposite direction, however, to neighbouring energetic streams. Although the energetic flow is in different directions, the energetic rings have wrapping properties that keep each stream together. From the following pictures, we see why streams that meet do not change light velocity.

Photons are primary, unstable wave particles containing two easily separable loops. Helium atoms, with four loops (two photons), two energetic (protons) and two magnetic (neutrons), are the first stable atoms-particles (picture below).

In the atom, we have a strong, double connection: the energetic loops of each wave (photon) intermingle with the magnetic loops of the other. In a light stream, only the magnetic loops connect with each other, so the connection is weaker and the particles of light scatter easily.

Only energetic matter can create these phenomenal creations and unbelievable formations. In this short introduction to wave theory, I cannot fully discuss this issue. Although it seems very simple, it is really very complex. I leave it to young physicists to continue with what I believe to be an endless subject.

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Dr. Chaim Tejman, Copyright© 2001. All rights reserved.