Chapter 2 - Wave Theory and Photons

Printer-Friendly Version

In 1669, a Dutch physician, Erasmus Bartholinus (1625-1698), discovered that a crystal of Iceland spar, a transparent form of calcium carbonate, produces a double image (picture right). Apparently, light passing through the crystal splits into two rays. This simple observation indicates that light has two components and is part of the basis of wave theory. Together with other observations, it stressed that light can appear in two forms.

In 1808, a French army engineer, Étienne Louis Malus (1775 -1812), discovered polarized light.

Some optically active systems rotate the plane of polarized light in a clockwise direction. This is taken as a right-handed turn; such systems are dextrorotatory. Others turn light in a counter-clockwise direction and are levorotatory. In later observations, it was seen that some plastic devices polarize light waves in a transverse position, while others polarize light waves perpendicular to one to other. In whole light, those two forms always appear together and it is easy to split them into two rays (picture below).

Thus we see that one part of a photon moves in a perpendicular plane and the second seems to be in a transverse position (picture, below right). The structure of the photon resembles astronomical observations, whereby a transverse cloud of energetic matter connects vertical discs.

In the picture above, we see that the loop in the perpendicular position is well defined and shining. The loop in the transverse position is composed of active energetic matter; wider than the first loop, it is cloud-like, not clearly visible and with no clear borders. As the loops are in perpendicular and transverse positions and belong to the same star couple formation, perhaps, the photon also has the same structure (picture below).

Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Printer-Friendly Version

Back to Top

Dr. Chaim Tejman, Copyright© 2001. All rights reserved.