Wave Theory and Photons
1669, a Dutch physician, Erasmus Bartholinus (1625-1698),
discovered that a crystal of Iceland spar, a transparent form
of calcium carbonate, produces a double image (picture, right).
Apparently, light passing through the crystal splits into
two rays. This simple observation indicates that light has
two components and is thus a fundamental facet of wave theory.
Together with other observations, it proved that light can
appear in two forms (picture below).
In 1808, a French army engineer, Étienne Louis Malus
(1775 -1812), discovered polarized light. Some optically active
systems rotate the plane of polarized light in a clockwise
direction. This is viewed as a right-handed turn; such systems
are dextrorotatory. Others turn light in a counter-clockwise
direction and are levorotatory. Later observations revealed
that some plastic devices polarize light waves in a supine
position, while other polarized light waves are upright. In
whole or non-polarized light, those two forms always appear
together and it is easy to split them into two rays (picture
Thus we see that one part of a photon moves in an upright
plane and the second
is in a relatively transverse position (picture, below-left).
The structure of the photon resembles astronomical observations
whereby a transverse cloud of energetic matter connects vertical
In the last picture, we saw that the loop in the upright
position is well defined and shining. The loop in the supine
position is composed of active energetic matter. It is wider
than the first loop and nebulously cloud-like — lacking
clear borders. As the loops are aligned perpindicularly and
belong to the same dual star formation, the photon may also
have the same structure (picture below).
Dr. Chaim Tejman, Copyright©
2001. All rights reserved.
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