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Wave Theory and Photons
(Continued — Page 2)

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In 1669, a Dutch physician, Erasmus Bartholinus (1625-1698), discovered that a crystal of Iceland spar, a transparent form of calcium carbonate, produces a double image (picture, right). Apparently, light passing through the crystal splits into two rays. This simple observation indicates that light has two components and is thus a fundamental facet of wave theory. Together with other observations, it proved that light can appear in two forms (picture below).

In 1808, a French army engineer, Étienne Louis Malus (1775 -1812), discovered polarized light. Some optically active systems rotate the plane of polarized light in a clockwise direction. This is viewed as a right-handed turn; such systems are dextrorotatory. Others turn light in a counter-clockwise direction and are levorotatory. Later observations revealed that some plastic devices polarize light waves in a supine position, while other polarized light waves are upright. In whole or non-polarized light, those two forms always appear together and it is easy to split them into two rays (picture below).

Thus we see that one part of a photon moves in an upright plane and the second is in a relatively transverse position (picture, below-left). The structure of the photon resembles astronomical observations whereby a transverse cloud of energetic matter connects vertical discs.

In the last picture, we saw that the loop in the upright position is well defined and shining. The loop in the supine position is composed of active energetic matter. It is wider than the first loop and nebulously cloud-like — lacking clear borders. As the loops are aligned perpindicularly and belong to the same dual star formation, the photon may also have the same structure (picture below).

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Dr. Chaim Tejman, Copyright© 2001. All rights reserved.